Guide to Computer Software and Hardware Basic Knowledge

Guide to Computer Software and Hardware Basic Knowledge

Diving into the world of computers can be a bit overwhelming. At the heart of every computer are two primary components: software and hardware. To make things easier for you, we’ve crafted this simple guide. Let’s explore these essential elements of a computer.


So, What is a Computer System?

In simple terms, a computer system is any programmable digital or analog machine that can do the following:

  • receive input from users,
  • process the same (based on the program instructions), and
  • deliver the output in the desired format.

Computer systems can function on their own or access & work with other externally connected devices. Among other things, computer systems are highly flexible. They can handle almost any task and deliver the desired output.


Components of a Computer System

It is only logical to wonder how these fantastic pieces of technology deliver such excellent efficiency. The answers are not far-fetched: there are two significant elements in any computer system:

  • Hardware
  • Software

The computer hardware collectively describes all the parts you can physically touch. The software components, on the other hand, are not tangible. Hardware comprises the physical parts and components of your computer, including the screen or monitor, keyboard, mouse, and others. The computer software is a set of programmed instructions a computer relies on to perform certain operations.

Before we discuss these components extensively, let us quickly note that a computer system only works if both the hardware and software are present and working together.


Understanding Hardware: The Physical Components

The term computer hardware includes every physical component of a computer – either digital or analog. It also separates the tangible aspects from the software or unseen components – the later comprises written instructions that direct the visible aspects. There are two categories of computer hardware – the external parts and the internal parts. Overall, hardware devices deliver instructions to the software or produce results of the execution of these instructions in the desirable form.

Hardware refers to the tangible parts of a computer, the things you can touch and feel.

  • Processor (CPU): Think of this as the brain of the computer. It executes commands and runs your software.
  • Memory (RAM): This is your computer’s short-term memory. It temporarily stores data that the CPU may need quick access to.
  • Storage (HDD & SSD): Unlike RAM, storage devices keep your data, even when the computer is turned off. HDDs use spinning disks, while SSDs are faster and use flash memory.
  • Graphics Card: This processes and renders images and video. For gamers and designers, a powerful graphics card is key.
  • Motherboard: This is like the main circuit board. All other components connect to it.


Getting to Know Software: The Intangible Magic

As we mentioned earlier, computer software is a collection of programs that directs a computer on how to execute a task. Each computer program has a specific job it oversees. The OS is the most prominent computer software – it is where every other program runs. Unlike the computer hardware, the software components of a computer system are not tangible. Therefore, you cannot touch them physically.

Now, software is the intangible part, the programs and applications you run.

  • Operating System (OS): This is foundational software that manages hardware and provides services for other software. Examples include Windows, macOS, and Linux.
  • Applications: These are programs designed for end-users. Think of your web browser, word processor, or video player.
  • Drivers: These are specific types of software that allow the OS to interact with particular hardware components.
  • Utilities: These are system software designed to help analyze, configure, and optimize the computer. Examples include disk cleaners or antivirus programs.


How Software and Hardware Work Together

Here’s a straightforward way to see it. Imagine the computer as a workspace. The desk and chair (hardware) support the worker, while the tasks and guidelines (software) dictate the work done.

The computer can only offer a desirable output when these two components work together. The hardware is useless without a set of programs to operate. A computer user must install the necessary software into the hardware before the computer can complete a job.

Interestingly, the hardware aspect is a one-time commitment. At the same time, software development is continuous and somewhat pricy, considering that you need various software applications to run multiple jobs.


Upgrading Your System

Lastly, as technology progresses, so do software and hardware. Always ensure that your hardware can support the latest software upgrades. This keeps your system running smoothly.



To wrap it up, understanding computer software and hardware doesn’t have to be complicated. By breaking things down into these basic components, you’ll have a clearer picture of how your device operates. And remember, whether tangible (hardware) or intangible (software), each plays a crucial role in making computers the powerful tools they are today.


If you have questions related to computer software or hardware, feel free to comment below. You may also share any vital points you think should have been included in the course of our discussion. We would love to hear from you!


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